Hedging is a tool to minimize the risks. It is thus like an 'insurance' where one pays a premium but gets an assured amount in case of some uncertain event to the extent of the loss actually suffered on an equally opposite position for which the hedge was done. Thus, hedger is different from arbitrageur and speculators, as the intention here is not to maximize the profit but to minimize the loss.
E.g. In Capital Markets, suppose an investor has an equity portfolio of Rs. 2 lacs and the portfolio consists of all the major stocks of NIFTY. He thinks the market will improve in the long run but might go on a downside in the shortrun. NIFTY today stands at 4300. To minimize the risk of downfall, he enters into an option contract by buying NIFTY-PUT of strike 4300 at a premium of, say, Rs. 100. Thus, the actual amount paid is Rs. 5,000(lot size of NIFTY is 50). Also, the number of NIFTY-PUTs to be bought will vary on the beta of the portfolio so as to completely hedge the positon.
Capital structure is a term which is referred to be the mix of sources from which the long term funds are required for business purposes which are raised to improve the capital of the company. To fund an organization plan this capital structure is required which is the combination of debt and equity. The management ensures the capital structure accesses which are needed to fund future growth and enhance financial performance. The principles of capital structure management which are essentially required are as follows:-
Regular dividend payments are signals that a company is healthy and profitable. Also, issuing dividends can attract investors (shareholders). Finally, a company may distribute earnings to shareholders if it lacks profitable investment opportunities.
Undergraduates may get this question as feelers of their business knowledge. Insider trading describes the illegal activity of buying or selling stock based on information that is not public information. This is to prevent those with privileged information (company execs, I-bankers and lawyers) from using this information to make a tremendous amount of money unfairly.
Investment and asset are really close in meaning. Investment is when you put your money in stock, bond or other financial instruments. Whereas Asset is what you own generally reffered to land, proprietorship , factory, etc.