# Permutations and Combinations Questions

FACTS  AND  FORMULAE  FOR  PERMUTATIONS  AND  COMBINATIONS  QUESTIONS

1.  Factorial Notation: Let n be a positive integer. Then, factorial n, denoted n! is defined as: n!=n(n - 1)(n - 2) ... 3.2.1.

Examples : We define 0! = 1.

4! = (4 x 3 x 2 x 1) = 24.

5! = (5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1) = 120.

2.  Permutations: The different arrangements of a given number of things by taking some or all at a time, are called permutations.

Ex1 : All permutations (or arrangements) made with the letters a, b, c by taking two at a time are (ab, ba, ac, ca, bc, cb).

Ex2 : All permutations made with the letters a, b, c taking all at a time are:( abc, acb, bac, bca, cab, cba)

Number of Permutations: Number of all permutations of n things, taken r at a time, is given by:

$P_{r}^{n}=n\left(n-1\right)\left(n-2\right)....\left(n-r+1\right)=\frac{n!}{\left(n-r\right)!}$

Ex : (i) $P_{2}^{6}=\left(6×5\right)=30$   (ii) $P_{3}^{7}=\left(7×6×5\right)=210$

Cor. number of all permutations of n things, taken all at a time = n!.

Important Result: If there are n subjects of which p1 are alike of one kind; p2 are alike of another kind; p3 are alike of third kind and so on and pr are alike of rth kind,

such that $\left({p}_{1}+{p}_{2}+...+{p}_{r}\right)=n$

Then, number of permutations of these n objects is :

3.  Combinations: Each of the different groups or selections which can be formed by taking some or all of a number of objects is called a combination.

Ex.1 : Suppose we want to select two out of three boys A, B, C. Then, possible selections are AB, BC and CA.

Note that AB and BA represent the same selection.

Ex.2 : All the combinations formed by a, b, c taking ab, bc, ca.

Ex.3 : The only combination that can be formed of three letters a, b, c taken all at a time is abc.

Ex.4 : Various groups of 2 out of four persons A, B, C, D are : AB, AC, AD, BC, BD, CD.

Ex.5 : Note that ab ba are two different permutations but they represent the same combination.

Number of Combinations: The number of all combinations of n things, taken r at a time is:

Note : (i)     (ii)$C_{r}^{n}=C_{\left(n-r\right)}^{n}$

Examples : (i) $C_{4}^{11}=\frac{11×10×9×8}{4×3×2×1}=330$      (ii)$C_{13}^{16}=C_{\left(16-13\right)}^{16}=C_{3}^{16}=560$

Q:

In how many different ways can the letters of the word 'THERAPY' be arranged so that the vowels always come together?

 A) 720 B) 1440 C) 1800 D) 3600

Explanation:

Given word is THERAPY.

Number of letters in the given word = 7

Number of vowels in the given word = 2 = A & E

Required number of different ways, the letters of the word THERAPY arranged such that vowels always come together is

6! x 2! = 720 x 2 = 1440.

8 739
Q:

There are 5 multiple choice questions in an examination. How many sequences of answers are possible, if the first three questions have 4 choices each and the next two have 6 choices each?

 A) 1112 B) 2304 C) 1224 D) 2426

Explanation:

Number of questions = 5
Possibilities of choices for each question 1 to 5 respectively = 4, 4, 4, 6, 6

Reuired total number of sequences

= 4 x 4 x 4 x 6 x 6

= 2304.

13 594
Q:

How many numbers of five digits can be formed by using the digits 1, 0, 2, 3, 5, 6 which are between 50000 and 60000 without repeating the digits?

 A) 120 B) 240 C) 256 D) 360