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Study Material and Tips

### Tips to Solve Problems on Stocks and Shares

1.Stock-capital: The total amount needed to run the company is called the stock-capital 2.Shares or stock: The whole capital is divided into small units, called shares or stock. For each investment, the company issues a share-certificate, showing the value of each share and the number of shares held by a person. The person who subscribers in shares or ...

### Tips to Solve Problems on True Discount

Suppose a man has to pay Rs.156 after 4 years and the rate of interest is 14% per annum. Clearly, Rs. 100 at 14% will amount to Rs. 156 in 4 years. So, the payment of Rs. 100 now will clear off the debt of Rs.156 due 4 years hence. We say that : Sum due = Rs.156 due 4 years hence; Present Worth (P.W) = Rs. 100; True Discount (T.D) = (Sum due) - (P.W)...

### Tips to Solve Problems on Bankers Discount

Banker's Discount : Suppose a merchant 'A' buys goods worth, say Rs. 10,000 from another merchant 'B' at a credit of say 5 months.Then, B prepares a bill, called the bill of exchange. A signs this bill and allows B to withdraw the amount from his bank account after exactly 5 months. The date exactly after 5 months is called nominally due date. Three da...

### Tips to Solve Problems on Simple Interest

1.Principal: The money borrowed or lent out for a certain period is called the principal or the sum. 2.Interest: Extra money paid for using other's money is called interest 3.Simple Interest (S.I.) : If the interest on a sum borrowed for a certain period is reckoned uniformly, then it is called simple interest. Let Principal = P, Rate = R% per annum ...

### Tips to Solve Problems on Trains

1. a km/hr = [a x (5/18)] m/s. 2. a m/s = [a x (18/5)] km/hr. 3. Time taken by a train of length l metres to pass a pole or a standing man or a signal post is equal to the time taken by the train to cover l metres. 4. Time taken by a train of length 1 metres to pass a stationary object of length b metres is the time taken by the train to cover (1 +...

### Tips to Solve Problems on Time and Distance

1. 2. x km/hr = 3. x m/sec = 4. If the ratio of the speeds of A and B is a:b , then the ratio of the times taken by them to cover the same distance is or b : a 5. Suppose a man covers a certain distance at x km/ hr and an equal distance at y km/hr . Then, the average speed during the whole journey iskm/hr....

### Tips to Solve Problems on Time and Work

1. If A can do a piece of work in n days, then A's 1 day's work = 2. If A’s 1 day's work =, then A can finish the work in n days. 3. A is thrice as good a workman as B, then: Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1. Ratio of times taken by A and B to finish a work = 1 : 3. NOTE : Whole work...

### Tips to Solve Problems on Chain Rule

1. Direct Proportion: Two quantities are said to be directly proportional, if on the increase (or decrease) of the one, the other increases (or decreases) to the same extent. Ex. 1. Cost is directly proportional to the number of articles. (More Articles, More Cost) Ex. 2. Work done is directly proportional to the number of men working on it (More Men,...