1. Experiment : An operation which can produce some well-defined outcomes is called an experiment.


2. Random Experiment :An experiment in which all possible outcomes are know and the exact output cannot be predicted in advance, is called a random experiment.

Ex :

i. Tossing a fair coin.

ii. Rolling an unbiased dice.

iii. Drawing a card from a pack of well-shuffled cards.


3. Details of above experiments:

i. When we throw a coin, then either a Head (H) or a Tail (T) appears.

ii. A dice is a solid cube, having 6 faces, marked 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 respectively. When we throw a die, the outcome is the number that appears on its upper face.

iii. A pack of cards has 52 cards.

  • It has 13 cards of each suit, name Spades, Clubs, Hearts and Diamonds.
  • Cards of spades and clubs are black cards.
  • Cards of hearts and diamonds are red cards.

There are 4 honours of each unit. There are Kings, Queens and Jacks. These are all called face cards.


4. Sample Space: When we perform an experiment, then the set S of all possible outcomes is called the sample space.

Ex :

1. In tossing a coin, S = {H, T}

2. If two coins are tossed, the S = {HH, HT, TH, TT}.

3. In rolling a dice, we have, S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.

Event : Any subset of a sample space is called an event.


5. Probability of Occurrence of an Event : 

Let S be the sample and let E be an event.

Then, ES


6. Results on Probability :

i. P(S) = 1    ii. 0P(E)1   iii. P()=0


iv. For any events A and B we have : 



v. If A denotes (not-A), then P(A)=1-P(A)


The variance of a set of data is 121. Then the standard deviation of the data is

A) +-11 B) 11
C) 21 D) 60.5
Answer & Explanation Answer: B) 11

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