Statement - Conclusions Questions

Q:

All windows are doors. No door is wall

Conclusions:

1. No window is wall

2. No Wall is door

A) Only 1 follows B) Only 2 follows
C) Either 1 or 2 follows D) Both 1 and 2 follow
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: D) Both 1 and 2 follow

Explanation:

Since both the premises are universal and one premise is negative, the conclusion must be universal negative. Also, the conclusion should not contain the middle term. So, 1 follows.

 

However, 2 is the converse of the second premise and thus it also holds.

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Q:

Some blades are hammers. Some hammers are knives. Some knives are axes.

Conclusions:

1. Some axes are hammers

2. Some knives are blades

3. Some axes are blades

A) None follows B) Only 1 follows
C) Only 2 follows D) Only 3 follows
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: A) None follows

Explanation:

Since each combination has of premises has 2 particular premises, so no defenite conclusion follows

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Q:

All snakes are trees. Some trees are roads. All roads are mountains.

Conclusions: 

1. Some mountains are snakes

2. Some roads are snakes

3. Some mountains are trees

A) Only 1 follows B) Only 2 follows
C) Only 3 follows D) Both 1 and 2 follow
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: C) Only 3 follows

Explanation:

All snakes are trees. Some trees are roads.

Since the middle term is not distributed even once in the premises,so no conclusion follows

 

Some trees are roads. All roads are mountains

Since one primise is particular,the conclusion must be particularand should'nt contain the middle term. So,it follows that 'Some trees are mountains'. 3 is the converse of this statement and so it holds.

 

All snakes are trees. Some trees are mountains.

Since the middle term is not distributed even once in the preises, so no definite conclusion follows

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10 958
Q:

Some hills are rivers. Some rivers are desrets. All desrets are roads.

Conclusions:

1. Some roads are rivers

2. Some roads are hills

3. Some deserts are hills

A) None follows B) Only 1 follows
C) Only 1 and 2 follows D) All follow
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: B) Only 1 follows

Explanation:

Some hills are  rivers. Some rivers are deserts.

Since both the premises are particular, no defenite conclusion follows.

 

Some rivers are deserts. All deserts are roads

Since one premise is particular,the conclusion must be particular and should'nt contain the middle term. Since it follows that 'Some rivers are roads'. 1 is the converse of this conclusion and so it holds.

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3 872
Q:

Some mountains are hillocks. Some mountains are rivers. Some mountains are valleys.

Conclusions:

1. All mountains are either hillocks or rivers or valleys

2. No valley is river

3. Some river are valleys

A) None follows B) Only 1 follows
C) Only 2 and 3 follow D) Only 3 follows
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: C) Only 2 and 3 follow

Explanation:

2 and 3 are the satements involving the extreme terms of the last 2 premises and form a complementary pair. Thus either 2 or 3 follows

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