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Q:

What are the advantages of using friend classes? 

Answer:



Q:

What do you mean by friend function in C++ ?

Answer

Friends can be either functions or other classes. The class grants friends unlimited access privileges.

* The declaration of the function should be preceded by the keyword 'friend'.
* The function definition will not use the keyword or the scope operator '::'.


Thus, a friend function is an ordinary function or a member of another class.

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Q:

Give an example for the use of volatile keyword in c++ ?

Answer

Most of the times compilers will do optimization to the code to speed up the program. For example in the below code,


int k = 15;
while( k == 15)


{
// Do something
}


compiler may think that value of 'k' is not getting changed in the program and replace it with 'while(true)', which will result in an infinite loop. In actual scenario, the value of 'k' may be getting updated from outside of the program.


Volatile keyword is used to tell compiler that the variable declared using 'volatile' may be used from outside the current scope, so that compiler won't apply any optimization. This matters only in case of multi-threaded applications.


In the above example if variable 'k' was declared using volatile, compiler will not optimize it. In shot, value of the volatile variables will be read from the memory location directly.

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Q:

Values that are used to end loops are referred to as _____ values.

A) stop B) sentinel
C) end D) finish
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: B) sentinel

Explanation:
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Q:

Which of the following type casts will convert an Integer variable named amount to a Double type ?

A) (int to double) amount B) int (amount) to double
C) int to double(amount) D) (double) amount
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: D) (double) amount

Explanation:
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Q:

What is conversion operator ?

Answer

Class can have a public method for specific data type conversions.
for example:
class B
{
double value;
public  B(int i )
operator double()
{
return value;
}
};
B BObject;
double i = BObject; // assigning object to variable i of type double.
now conversion operator gets called to assign the value.

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