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Q:

Which of the following is called 'the King of Chemicals' ?

A) Nitric acid B) Hydrochloric acid
C) Silver nitrate D) Sulphuric acid

Answer:   D) Sulphuric acid



Explanation:

Sulphuric acid is called the King of Chemicals because it is used in the preparation of a very large number of other useful chemicals such as hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, dyes, drugs etc. In fact the annual production of shulpuric acid in a country is a measure of the economy of the country.

Subject: Chemistry
Q:

Which statement is NOT true about polymers?

A) Polymers are large molecules composed of small monomeric units B) Polymes are macromolecules
C) Polymers are complex molecules composed of random sequences of atoms D) All the above
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: C) Polymers are complex molecules composed of random sequences of atoms

Explanation:

Polymers are complex molecules composed of random sequences of atoms is the only statement which is not true regarding polymers.

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Q:

Which type of molecules polar or nonpolar dissolves in water?

Answer

In general, polar solvents dissolve polar solutes, and nonpolar solvents dissolve nonpolar solutes.
As water molecules are polar, polar molecules dissolves in water.

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1 19
Q:

When Ionic bonds are formed metallic atoms tend to

A) share electrons B) gain electrons
C) lose electrons D) None of above
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: C) lose electrons

Explanation:

Ionic bonding is the complete transfer of valence electron(s) between atoms. It is a type of chemical bond that generates two oppositely charged ions. In ionic bonds, the metal loses electrons to become a positively charged cation, whereas the nonmetal accepts those electrons to become a negatively charged anion.

 

Hence, when Ionic bonds are formed metallic atoms tend to lose electrons and become positive ions

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Q:

Which is a characteristic of a Mixture?

A) a pure substance B) chemically comined
C) they can be mixed in some fixed ratio D) it is either homogenous or heterogenous
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: D) it is either homogenous or heterogenous

Explanation:

A mixture is the blending of two or more dissimilar substances.

 

Characteristics of a Mixture:

1. It has No formula.

2. It is an impure sustance

3. They can be mixed in any ratio.

4. The properties of the mixture are the properties of its constituents.

5. Constituents can e easily seperated by physical methods.
eg: Heating, Drying, Crystallization, Distillation etc...

6. It is either homogenous or heterogenous.

 

A major characteristic of mixtures is that the materials do not chemically combine. Mixtures can be divided into those that are evenly distributed (homogeneous) and those that aren't (heterogeneous).

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Q:

Which of the following is a property of sodium hydroxide?

A) It is insoluble in ether and other Non-polar solvents B) It is slowly soluble in water
C) It has an odor of rotten egg smell D) All the above
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: A) It is insoluble in ether and other Non-polar solvents

Explanation:

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations Na+ and hydroxide anions OH−.

Properties:

1. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air.

2. NaOH is insoluble in ether and other non-polar solvents.

3. It is an odorless compound.

 

Uses:

Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner.

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Q:

Molar mass of HNO3?

A) 63 g/mol B) 53 g/mol
C) 48 g/mol D) 52 g/mol
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: A) 63 g/mol

Explanation:

Calculation of molar mass of HNO3:

Atomic masses of H, N, O are 1, 14, 16 respectively

Now the molar mass of HNO3 is

HNO3 = 1X1 + 1X14 + 3X16

= 1 + 14 + 48

= 63 g/mol or amu.

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Q:

Lime is sometimes applied to soil in order to

A) increase the acidity of the soil B) make the soil more porous
C) restore nitrates to the soil D) increase the alkalinity of the soil
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: D) increase the alkalinity of the soil

Explanation:

Lime is sometimes applied to soil in order to increase the acidity of the soil.

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Q:

Which combination of atoms can form a polar covalent bond?

A) H and Br B) H and H
C) Na and Br D) N and N
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: A) H and Br

Explanation:

Only H and Br form Polar Covalent Bond.

 

Covalent bonding:

Covalent bonding occurs when pairs of electrons are shared by atoms. Atoms will covalently bond with other atoms in order to gain more stability, which is gained by forming a full electron shell. By sharing their outer most (valence) electrons, atoms can fill up their outer electron shell and gain stability.

1. Polar Covalent Bond

2. Nonpolar Covalent Bond

 

1. Polar Covalent Bond:

A Polar Covalent Bond is created when the shared electrons between atoms are not equally shared. This occurs when one atom has a higher electronegativity than the atom it is sharing with. The atom with the higher electronegativity will have a stronger pull for electrons (Similiar to a Tug-O-War game, whoever is stronger usually wins). As a result, the shared electrons will be closer to the atom with the higher electronegativity, making it unequally shared.

 

2. Nonpolar Covalent Bond:

A Nonpolar Covalent Bond is created when atoms share their electrons equally. This usually occurs when two atoms have similar or the same electron affinity. The closer the values of their electron affinity, the stronger the attraction. This occurs in gas molecules; also known as diatomic elements. Nonpolar covalent bonds have a similar concept as polar covalent bonds; the atom with the higher electronegativity will draw away the electron from the weaker one.

 

Here H and H and N and N form Non-polar covalent bonds. Na and Br form the ionic bond.

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