Permutations and Combinations Questions

FACTS  AND  FORMULAE  FOR  PERMUTATIONS  AND  COMBINATIONS  QUESTIONS

 

 

1.  Factorial Notation: Let n be a positive integer. Then, factorial n, denoted n! is defined as: n!=n(n - 1)(n - 2) ... 3.2.1.

Examples : We define 0! = 1.

4! = (4 x 3 x 2 x 1) = 24.

5! = (5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1) = 120.

 

2.  Permutations: The different arrangements of a given number of things by taking some or all at a time, are called permutations.

Ex1 : All permutations (or arrangements) made with the letters a, b, c by taking two at a time are (ab, ba, ac, ca, bc, cb).

Ex2 : All permutations made with the letters a, b, c taking all at a time are:( abc, acb, bac, bca, cab, cba)

Number of Permutations: Number of all permutations of n things, taken r at a time, is given by:

Prn=nn-1n-2....n-r+1=n!n-r!

 

Ex : (i) P26=6×5=30   (ii) P37=7×6×5=210

Cor. number of all permutations of n things, taken all at a time = n!.

Important Result: If there are n subjects of which p1 are alike of one kind; p2 are alike of another kind; p3 are alike of third kind and so on and pr are alike of rth kind,

such that p1+p2+...+pr=n

Then, number of permutations of these n objects is :

n!(p1!)×(p2! ).... (pr!)

 

3.  Combinations: Each of the different groups or selections which can be formed by taking some or all of a number of objects is called a combination.

Ex.1 : Suppose we want to select two out of three boys A, B, C. Then, possible selections are AB, BC and CA.

Note that AB and BA represent the same selection.

Ex.2 : All the combinations formed by a, b, c taking ab, bc, ca.

Ex.3 : The only combination that can be formed of three letters a, b, c taken all at a time is abc.

Ex.4 : Various groups of 2 out of four persons A, B, C, D are : AB, AC, AD, BC, BD, CD.

Ex.5 : Note that ab ba are two different permutations but they represent the same combination.

Number of Combinations: The number of all combinations of n things, taken r at a time is:

Crn=n!(r !)(n-r)!=nn-1n-2....to r factorsr!

 

Note : (i)Cnn=1 and C0n =1     (ii)Crn=C(n-r)n

 

Examples : (i) C411=11×10×9×84×3×2×1=330      (ii)C1316=C(16-13)16=C316=560

Q:

How many 4-letter words with or without meaning, can be formed out of the letters of the word, 'LOGARITHMS', if repetition of letters is not allowed?

A) 4050 B) 3600
C) 1200 D) 5040
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: D) 5040

Explanation:

'LOGARITHMS' contains 10 different letters.

 

Required number of words = Number of arrangements of 10 letters, taking 4 at a time.

 

10P4

 

= 5040.

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27 22265
Q:

The Indian Cricket team consists of 16 players. It includes 2 wicket keepers and 5 bowlers. In how many ways can a cricket eleven be selected if we have to select 1 wicket keeper and atleast 4 bowlers?

A) 1024 B) 1900
C) 2000 D) 1092
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: D) 1092

Explanation:

We are to choose 11 players including 1 wicket keeper and 4 bowlers  or, 1 wicket keeper and 5 bowlers.

 

Number of ways of selecting 1 wicket keeper, 4 bowlers and 6 other players in 2C1*5C4*9C6 = 840

 

Number of ways of selecting 1 wicket keeper, 5 bowlers and 5 other players in 2C1*5C5*9C5 =252

 

Total number of ways of selecting the team = 840 + 252 = 1092

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22 21186
Q:

How many arrangements can be made out of the letters of the word COMMITTEE, taken all at a time, such that the four vowels do not come together?

A) 216 B) 45360
C) 1260 D) 43200
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: D) 43200

Explanation:

There are total 9 letters in the word COMMITTEE in which there are 2M's, 2T's, 2E's.

The number of ways in which 9 letters can be arranged = 9!2!×2!×2! = 45360

 

There are 4 vowels O,I,E,E in the given word. If the four vowels always come together, taking them as one letter we have to arrange 5 + 1 = 6 letters which include 2Ms and 2Ts and this be done in 6!2!×2! = 180 ways.

 

In which of 180 ways, the 4 vowels O,I,E,E remaining together can be arranged in 4!2! = 12 ways.

 

The number of ways in which the four vowels always come together = 180 x 12 = 2160.

 

Hence, the required number of ways in which the four vowels do not come together = 45360 - 2160 = 43200

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19 20304
Q:

In how many ways can a group of 5 men and 2 women be made out of a total of 7 men and 3 women?

A) 135 B) 63
C) 125 D) 64
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: B) 63

Explanation:

Required number of ways = (7C5*3C2) = (7C2*3C1) = 63

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26 19135
Q:

How many lines can you draw using 3 non collinear (not in a single line) points A, B and C on a plane?

A) 3 B) 6
C) 2 D) 4
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: A) 3

Explanation:

You need two points to draw a line. The order is not important. Line AB is the same as line BA. The problem is to select 2 points out of 3 to draw different lines. If we proceed as we did with permutations, we get the following pairs of points to draw lines.

 

AB , AC

 

BA , BC

 

CA , CB

 

There is a problem: line AB is the same as line BA, same for lines AC and CA and BC and CB.

 

The lines are: AB, BC and AC ; 3 lines only.

 

So in fact we can draw 3 lines and not 6 and that's because in this problem the order of the points A, B and C is not important.

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38 18343
Q:

When four fair dice are rolled simultaneously, in how many outcomes will at least one of the dice show 3?

A) 620 B) 671
C) 625 D) 567
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: B) 671

Explanation:

When 4 dice are rolled simultaneously, there will be a total of 6 x 6 x 6 x 6 = 1296 outcomes.

 

The number of outcomes in which none of the 4 dice show 3 will be 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 = 625 outcomes.

 

Therefore, the number of outcomes in which at least one die will show 3 = 1296 – 625 = 671

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24 18006
Q:

If the letters of the word CHASM are rearranged to form 5 letter words such that none of the word repeat and the results arranged in ascending order as in a dictionary what is the rank of the word CHASM ?

A) 32 B) 24
C) 72 D) 36
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: A) 32

Explanation:

The 5 letter word can be rearranged in 5!=120 Ways without any of the letters repeating.

The first 24 of these words will start with A.

Then the 25th word will start will CA _ _ _.
The remaining 3 letters can be rearranged in 3!=6 Ways. i.e. 6 words exist that start with CA.

The next word starts with CH and then A, i.e., CHA _ _.
The first of the words will be CHAMS. The next word will be CHASM.

Therefore, the rank of CHASM will be 24+6+2= 32

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7 15879
Q:

There are 7 non-collinear points. How many triangles can be drawn by joining these points?

A) 10 B) 30
C) 35 D) 60
 
Answer & Explanation Answer: C) 35

Explanation:

A triangle is formed by joining any three non-collinear points in pairs.

 

There are 7 non-collinear points

 

The number of triangles formed = 7C3 = 35

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12 15734